Traumatic brain injury and concussions result from a direct blow to the head or rapid acceleration and deceleration of the brain inside the skull such as in motor vehicle collision. A concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury which does not cause brain tissue damage, but which causes a series of chemical changes in the brain which can result in headaches, cognitive difficulty, visual changes, balance difficulty and vertigo, mood changes, and sleep disturbance. Sports-related injuries, falls, and motor vehicle collisions are just a few of the many mechanisms by which a person can suffer a traumatic brain injury.
Stroke most often occurs when a part of the brain is deprived of blood because of a blood clot or because of a spike in blood pressure. When this occurs, the part of the brain that is deprived of blood will stop working very abruptly, and a person will exhibit neurological deficits such as loss of vision, difficulty speaking, loss of strength or sensation on one side of the body, facial weakness, severe imbalance, or loss of coordination. TIA is a "stroke warning" in which the brain is deprived of blood for a short period of time which is not enough to cause an actual stroke. The same type of symptoms will occur, but they will resolve when blood flow is restored.
Hemorrhage (bleeding) can occur in the brain itself when a blood vessel opens up due to a spike in blood pressure or due to an underlying tumor. Subdural hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage are other types of hemorrhages which occur outside the brain, in between the meninges (layers between the brain and skull).
Migraine is a common headache disorder which affects millions of people around the world and which tends to run in families. It is typically a throbbing type of headache with pain and pressure behind the eyes, and it commonly involves light and noise sensitivity and sometimes nausea. Some people with migraine have associated neurological symptoms before, during, or after the headache, such as visual changes, vertigo, or changes in sensation or speech.
Alzheimer's dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative disease which involves loss of neurons in the temporal and parietal lobes of the brain, resulting in short-term memory difficulty and ultimately changes in language and behavior. Alzheimer's is one of the most common forms of dementia, affecting millions of people around the world, typically with onset after the age of 65.
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder which results in loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the coordination centers of the brain. This results in tremor, rigidity, slowness of movement and thought, and difficulty coordinating movement. While there is no cure for Parkinson's disease yet, there are medications which can greatly improve symptoms and quality of life.
Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by unpredictable seizures. A seizure occurs when abnormal electrical activity causes temporary dysfunction in a part of the brain, or synchronously throughout the brain. This can manifest as convulsive (shaking) activity of the body, or non-convulsive activity which can manifest as staring spells, confusion, abnormal smells or tastes, or abnormal movements or behaviors. There are many causes of epilepsy and seizures, and there are currently many medications which can be used to prevent seizures to improve quality of life.
Peripheral neuropathy is a condition in which peripheral nerves in the body (typically in the legs and sometimes the arms) can become damaged, resulting in tingling, numbness, pain, and balance difficulty. Peripheral neuropathy can be caused by diabetes, vitamin deficiencies, vitamin toxicities, alcohol consumption, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
There are many types of headache disorders, including migraine, cluster headaches, tension headache, medication overuse headache, and others. Other causes of headache can include idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri), uncontrolled high blood pressure, tumors, and cerebral aneurysm.
Dementia refers to a progressive degenerative disorder affecting the brain in which neurons become diseased over time, resulting in brain dysfunction. There are several forms of dementia, the most common of which is Alzheimer's disease. Other forms include vascular dementia, Frontotemporal dementia, Lewy Body dementia, and Parkinson's disease dementia.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) in which the immune system attacks and damages the myelin coating of nerves cells in the white matter of the brain, spinal cord and optic nerves.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune condition affecting the neuromuscular junction between nerves and muscles. When the immune system attacks this junction, muscles do not receive proper input from nerves and quickly weaken with repetitive movement. MG can affect our eye muscles, facial and swallowing muscles, extremity muscles, and even the diaphragm (our breathing muscle).
Tremor is an abnormal movement of a part of the body. Some tremors occur as part of Parkinson's disease, while other tremors, such as benign essential tremor, are not related to Parkinson's disease and look different on neurologic examination.
Restless leg syndrome is a disorder which causes an urgent need to move one’s legs or to get up and move around. This results in a lot of discomfort and often difficulty sleeping as well.
Boulder Neurology and Concussion
5723 Arapahoe Ave., Suite 1B
Boulder, CO 80303
For Patients and Referring Providers
Phone: (303) 932-2030
Fax: (833) 380-1476
For Medical Legal Consultation
Phone: (720) 574-1982